Reported Speech

Reported Speech

Mart 21, 2024 19:35
Reported Speech



DİRECT SPEECH is the exact words someone said.We use quatation marks
(‘‘ ’’) direct speech
‘‘I want to help,’’ Mary said.

REPORTED SPEECH is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words.We do not use qotation marks in reported speech.We can either use the word that after the introductory verb or we can omit it.
Mary said (that) she wanted to help.

– When the introductory verb is in the present tense or when the sentence expresses something which is always true (general truth), there are no changes in the verb tenses in reported speech.
– Direct Speech: She says ‘‘I love animals’’
– Reported Speech: She says (that) she loves animals.
– Direct Speech: ‘‘Rhinos live eastern and southern Africa, ’’said the theacher.
– Reported Speech: The teacher said (that) rhinos live in eastern and southern Africa.

When we report (i.ei a positive or negative sentence), we use the verbs ‘‘say’’ or ‘
‘‘tell’’ to introduce the statement.Pronouns (I, you, he etc, me, you, him, etc, mine
yours, etc) and possessive adjectives (my, your, his, etc) change according to the meaning.

– When the introductory verb is the past tense,the verb tenses change as fallows:
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present Simple
‘‘I want to go out, ’’ he said
Present Continious
‘‘She is playing in the garden. ’’ he said.
Present Perfect
‘‘They have bought a new house, ’’ he said.
Past Simple
‘‘He sent me flowers, ’’ she said.
Future Tense
‘‘I’ll order a new fridge, ’’ he said.

Past Simple
He said (that) he wanted to go out.
Past Continious
He said(that) she was playing football in the garden
Past Perfect
He said (that) they had bought a new house.
Past Perfect
She said (that) he had sent her flowers.
Conditional (would)
He said (that) he would order a new fridge.



Direct Speech Reported Speech
Tonight, today, this week/month etc.
Yesterday, next week/month etc.
Two days/month etc. ago
This, these That nigh, that day, that week/month etc.
Then, at the time
The day before, the previous night/week etc.
Two days/month etc. before
That, those
Certain words and time expressions change as fallows:


Note that some reporting verbs may appear in more than one of the following groups.

1. Verbs followed by ‘if’ or ‘whether’ + clause:

ask – know – remember say – see

2. Verbs followed by a that-clause:

add – admit – agree – announce – answer – argue – boast – claim – comment – complain – confirm – consider – deny – doubt – estimate – explain – fear -feel – insist – mention – observe – persuade – propose – remark – remember – repeat – reply – report – reveal – say – state – suggest – suppose – tell – think – understand – warn

3. Verbs followed by either a that-clause or a to-infinitive:

decide – xpect – guarantee – hope – promise – swear – threaten

4. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should
(but note that it may be omitted, leaving a subject + zero-infinitive):

advise – beg – demand – insist – prefer – propose – recommend – request – suggest

5. Verbs followed by a clause starting with a question word:

decide – describe – discover – discuss – explain – forget – guess – imagine – know – learn – realise – remember – reveal – say – see – suggest – teach – tell – think – understand – wonder

6. Verbs followed by object + to-infinitive

advise – ask – beg – command – forbid – instruct – invite – teach – tell – warn


Reported Questions
– We introduce reported questions with ask or want to know.
In reported questions, the verb is in the affirmative and the question mark is omitted.Verb tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives change
as in statements.
– When the direct question begins with a question word (who, where, when, why, what etc.) the reported questions with the same word.
Direct Speech:’’Where do you live?’’ she asked me.
Reported Speech:She asked me wherei I lived.
– When the direct question is a yes/no question and begins with an auxilary verb (do, be etc) or a modal verb (can, will etc), then th reported question begins with ıf or whether.
Direct Speech:’’have you got a pet?’’ he asked me.
Reported Speech:He asked me ıf/whether I had a pet.

Examples by Reported Statements
1)’’I’’ll go to the dentist,’’ she said.
She said (that) she would go to the dentist.

2)’’I have lived in Montreal for ten years,’’ she said.
She said (that) she had lived in Montreal for ten years.

3)’’We are leaving in June,’’ Dad said.
He said (that) they were leaving in June.

4)’’I forgot to take the dog for a walk,’’ said Annie.
She said (that) she had forgotten to take tahe dog for a walk.

5)’’We have done the washing up,’’ they said.
They said (that) they had done washing up.

6)’’I always wake up early on Mondays,’’ he said.
He said (that) he always woke up early on Mondays.

7)’’The Browns are looking for a new house,’’ she said.
She said (that) they were looking for a new house.

8)’’We bought a flat two months ago,’’ he said to Carol.
He said to Carol (that) they had bought a flat.

9)’’I’’ll paint the garage next week,’’ he said to Sam.
He said to Sam (that) he would paint the garage next week.

10)’’I’ve brought you some flowers,’’ he said to Julia.
He said to Julia (that) he had brought her some flowers.

Examples by Reported Questions
1)’’Do you like playing football?’’ Steve asked Greg.
Steve asked Greg if/whether he liked playing football.

2)’’Why didn’t you come to the party?’’
She asked (me) why I hadn’t come to party.

3)’’Why are you leaving so early today?’’
My mother asked me why I was leaving so early that day.

4)’’What time is it?’’
A child in the street asked me what time it was.

5)’’Are you coming with us?’’
She asked me if/whether I was coming with them.

6)’’Can you speak English?’’
A tourist stopped me in the street and asked if/whether I could speak English.

7)’’Are you coming with us?’’
She is asking me if/whether I’m coming with them.

8)’’Why did you refuse my offer?’’
He has asked me twice so far why I refused his offer.

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